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This colloquium will focus on Mesolithic shell middens of Portugal and shellmounds from Brazil, aimed at shedding light on biarchaeological differences between fluvial and maritime/lacustric settlements regarding four main subjects: a) type and degree of bony manifestations of disease and stress; b) degree of the association of anaemia to infectious diseases; c) occurrence and expression of occupational stress, considering technological variation and adaptive strategies and d) dental diseases and wear in the light of prevailing subsistence patterns.

Are these differences the result of simply diverging process in species with equivalent potentialities at the beginning?

Counting with the participation of archaeologists from several South American countries (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela), we intend to discus topics such as the European influence in South American archaeology, the strong penetration of North American theory, and the independent thought of South American's Social Archaeology, opening the debate for an analysis of the theoretical consistency of the archaeological production in South America.

(SAP)New methods arise everyday, as technology goes further and new opportunities of analysis are given.

The growing field of bioarchaeology has focussed primarily on methodological as well as local or regional issues during the last few years.

However, certain archaeological sites scattered around the world do share some common features, a fact that opens the opportunity of better understanding human adaptation and adaptability in the past.

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