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A seizure is a paroxysmal event due to abnormal, excessive, hypersynchronous discharges from an aggregate of central nervous system neurons.Among the many causes of epilepsy, there are various epilepsy syndromes in which the clinical and pathologic characteristics are distinctive and suggest a specific underlying etiology.The present invention is also directed to medicaments and methods for treating (including alleviating and/or preventing) neuropsychiatric and/or neurological disorders, including chronic neurological disorders, such as neurological disorders mediated by or influenced by the thalamus.In particular, the present invention is directed to a medicament containing a botulinum toxin for treating a neuropsychiatric and/or a chronic neurological disorder by administering the botulinum toxin to a trigeminal nerve.-f a sterile solution is desired, pass through a 0.2 micron filter.-ET is a clear solution.-tore in a light-resistant container.-odium metabisulfite is added to improve the stability of epinephrine?Stability: 6 months refrigerated, 4 weeks room temperature.[*] Discard if solution discolors.Rapid declines of estradiol, progesterone, and fluctuations of neurotransmitter levels may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of PMS and PMDD.These neurotransmitter changes and declines of sex hormones may lead to both peripheral and central sensitization Current treatment of PMDD and PMS is based on the hypothesis that neurotransmitter & hormonal fluctuations are in part responsible for the over 150 reported premenstrual symptoms associated with PMS and PMDD.
Campbell E M et al., Premenstrual symptoms in general practice patients. 1997 October; 42(10):637-46, and Grady-Weliky, Premenstrual Dysporic Disorder, N Engl J. Thus a PMD can affect a woman between the ages of about 12 and 55.The present invention is directed to methods for treating premenstrual disorders in human females In particular, the present invention is directed to methods for treating premenstrual disorders such as a premenstrual dysphoric disorder and/or a premenstrual syndrome by peripheral administration of a botulinum toxin.Premenstrual Disorders Emotional, physical, and functional symptoms are common during a premenstrual period in as many as 75% of women of reproductive age.Other causes of epilepsy include stroke, infection and genetic susceptibility. et al., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Mc Graw-Hill, 14Edition (1998), page 2321.Antiepileptic drug therapy is the mainstay of treatment for most patients with epilepsy and a variety of drugs have been used. Twenty percent of patients with epilepsy are resistant to drug therapy despite efforts to find an effective combination of antiepileptic drugs. Video-EEC monitoring can be used to define the anatomic location of the seizure focus and to correlate the abnormal electrophysiologic activity with behavioral manifestations of the seizure.