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188 Interpersonal Communication and the Internet 189 Content and Relational Messages 190 Metacommunication 192 INTIMACY IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Dimensions of Intimacy 193 viii 193 186 Male and Female Intimacy Styles 194 Cultural Influences on Intimacy 195 RELATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE 197 A Developmental Perspective 197 A Dialectical Perspective 201 Characteristics of Relational Development and Maintenance 205 i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page ix SELF-DISCLOSURE IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 206 Models of Self-Disclosure 207 Characteristics of Effective Self-Disclosure 210 Guidelines for Appropriate Self-Disclosure 213 Alternatives to Self-Disclosure 214 SUMMARY 220 KEY TERMS 220 ACTIVITIES 221 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 222 CHAPTER 7 IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 226 COMMUNICATION CLIMATES IN INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 228 Confirming and Disconfirming Messages 228 How Communication Climates Develop 231 Creating Positive Communication Climates 232 Gender and Conflict Style 243 Cultural Influences on Conflict 245 Methods of Conflict Resolution 247 Steps in Win–Win Problem Solving 250 MANAGING INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT 235 The Nature of Conflict 235 Styles of Expressing Conflict 236 Characteristics of an Assertive Message 239 SUMMARY 254 KEY TERMS 254 ACTIVITIES 255 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 255 PART THREE: COMMUNICATION IN GROUPS CHAPTER 8 THE NATURE OF GROUPS 260 WHAT IS A GROUP?262 Interaction 262 Interdependence 263 Time 264 Size 264 Goals 265 Roles 272 Patterns of Interaction 277 Decision-Making Methods 279 GOALS OF GROUPS AND THEIR MEMBERS Individual Goals 265 Group Goals 266 TYPES OF GROUPS 267 Learning Groups 267 Problem-Solving Groups 267 Social Groups 269 Growth Groups 269 CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUPS Rules and Norms 270 265 CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON GROUP COMMUNICATION 281 Individualism versus Collectivism 282 Power Distance 283 Uncertainty Avoidance 284 Task versus Social Orientation 284 Short- versus Long-Term Orientation 285 SUMMARY 285 KEY TERMS 285 ACTIVITIES 286 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 286 269 ix i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page x CHAPTER 9 SOLVING PROBLEMS IN GROUPS 288 PROBLEM SOLVING IN GROUPS: WHEN AND WHY 290 Advantages of Group Problem Solving 290 When to Use Groups for Problem Solving 292 Building Cohesiveness 305 LEADERSHIP AND POWER IN GROUPS Power in Groups 308 What Makes Leaders Effective?We also asked our colleagues what they think distinguishes a good textbook.Above all, they told us, a good text must present an accurate and comprehensive picture of the academic work it addresses.Every chapter of this book emphasizes the influence of both culture and technology on human communication.

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ISBN-13: 978–0–19–517833–3 ISBN 0–19–517833–5 Printing number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page v PART ONE: ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Human Communication: What and Why 2 Perception, the Self, and Communication 32 Language 74 Listening 114 Nonverbal Communication 152 PART TWO: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Understanding Interpersonal Relationships 186 Improving Interpersonal Relationships 226 CONTENTS IN BRIEF Preface xiii PART THREE: COMMUNICATION IN GROUPS Chapter 8 Chapter 9 The Nature of Groups 260 Solving Problems in Groups 288 PART FOUR: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Choosing and Developing a Topic 326 Organization and Support 352 Presenting Your Message 386 Informative Speaking 404 Persuasive Speaking 426 APPENDIX Appendix Interviewing 457 Notes 481 Glossary 501 Credits 511 Index 515 v i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page vi PART ONE: ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 1 HUMAN COMMUNICATION: WHAT AND WHY 2 COMMUNICATION DEFINED 4 Communication Is Human 4 Communication Is a Process 4 Communication Is Symbolic 6 COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE: WHAT MAKES AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATOR?And if we’ve done our job, professors will find the book does justice to the discipline and helps make their teaching more efficient and effective.This edition builds on the approach that has served over a half million students and their professors well in the past. skills debate that often rages in our discipline, Understanding Human Communication treats scholarship and skill development as mutually reinforcing.311 GROUP PROBLEM-SOLVING FORMATS 294 Types of Problem-Solving Groups 294 Computer-Mediated Groups 296 OVERCOMING DANGERS IN GROUP DISCUSSION Information Underload and Overload 316 Unequal Participation 316 Pressure to Conform 318 APPROACHES AND STAGES IN PROBLEM SOLVING 297 A Structured Problem-Solving Approach 297 Developmental Stages in Problem-Solving Groups 303 MAINTAINING POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS Basic Skills 305 SUMMARY 319 KEY TERMS 320 ACTIVITIES 320 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 321 305 PART FOUR: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 10 CHOOSING AND DEVELOPING A TOPIC CHOOSING A TOPIC 329 Look for a Topic Early 329 Choose a Topic That Interests You 329 ANALYZING THE SPEAKING SITUATION The Listener: Audience Analysis 333 The Occasion 338 326 GATHERING INFORMATION 340 Internet Research 340 Library Research 343 Interviewing 344 Personal Observation 344 Survey Research 345 DEFINING PURPOSE 329 General Purpose 330 Specific Purpose 330 The Thesis Statement 332 333 SAMPLE SPEECH 346 SUMMARY 348 KEY TERMS 349 ACTIVITIES 349 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 350 CHAPTER 11 ORGANIZATION AND SUPPORT STRUCTURING THE SPEECH Working Outline 354 Formal Outline 354 Speaking Notes 355 x 354 308 352 PRINCIPLES OF OUTLINING Standard Symbols 356 Standard Format 356 The Rule of Division 356 355 316 i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page xi The Rule of Parallel Wording 358 Styles of Support: Narration and Citation 372 ORGANIZING YOUR POINTS IN A LOGICAL ORDER 358 USING VISUAL AIDS 373 Types of Visual Aids 373 Media for the Presentation of Visual Aids 375 Rules for Using Visual Aids 378 USING TRANSITIONS 362 BEGINNING AND ENDING THE SPEECH The Introduction 362 The Conclusion 366 362 SUPPORTING MATERIAL 367 Functions of Supporting Material 367 Types of Supporting Material 369 SAMPLE SPEECH 379 SUMMARY 383 KEY TERMS 383 ACTIVITIES 383 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 384 CHAPTER 12 PRESENTING YOUR MESSAGE 386 DEALING WITH STAGE FRIGHT 388 Facilitative and Debilitative Stage Fright 388 Sources of Debilitative Stage Fright 388 Overcoming Debilitative Stage Fright 390 TYPES OF DELIVERY 391 Extemporaneous 391 Impromptu 392 Manuscript 393 Memorized 394 PRACTICING THE SPEECH GUIDELINES FOR DELIVERY 395 Visual Aspects of Delivery 395 Auditory Aspects of Delivery 397 OFFERING CONSTRUCTIVE CRITICISM SUMMARY 401 KEY TERMS 401 ACTIVITIES 401 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 400 402 394 CHAPTER 13 INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 404 TYPES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING By Content 407 By Purpose 407 407 INFORMATIVE VERSUS PERSUASIVE TOPICS 408 An Informative Topic Tends to Be Noncontroversial 408 The Informative Speaker Does Not Intend to Change Audience Attitudes 408 TECHNIQUES OF INFORMATIVE SPEAKING 409 Define a Specific Informative Purpose 409 Create Information Hunger 410 Make It Easy to Listen 411 Emphasize Important Points 411 Use a Clear Organization and Structure 412 Use Supporting Material Effectively 414 Use Clear, Simple Language 414 Generate Audience Involvement 415 SAMPLE SPEECH 417 SUMMARY 424 KEY TERMS 424 ACTIVITIES 424 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 425 xi i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page xii CHAPTER 14 PERSUASIVE SPEAKING 426 CHARACTERISTICS OF PERSUASION 428 Persuasion Is Not Coercive 428 Persuasion Is Usually Incremental 428 Persuasion Is Interactive 430 Persuasion Can Be Ethical 430 CATEGORIZING TYPES OF PERSUASION By Types of Proposition 432 By Desired Outcome 433 By Directness of Approach 434 432 CREATING THE PERSUASIVE MESSAGE Set a Clear, Persuasive Purpose 436 Structure the Message Carefully 437 Use Solid Evidence 439 Avoid Fallacies 441 436 ADAPTING TO THE AUDIENCE 442 Establish Common Ground 443 Organize According to the Expected Response 443 Neutralize Potential Hostility 444 BUILDING CREDIBILITY AS A SPEAKER Competence 445 Character 446 Charisma 446 445 SAMPLE SPEECH 447 SUMMARY 451 KEY TERMS 452 ACTIVITIES 452 FOR FURTHER EXPLORATION 453 APPENDIX INTERVIEWING 457 THE NATURE OF INTERVIEWING 458 Interviewing Defined 458 How Interviewing Differs from Conversation 460 PLANNING THE INTERVIEW 460 The Interviewer’s Role 460 The Interviewee’s Role 466 CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW 467 Stages of an Interview 467 The Interviewer’s Responsibilities 468 The Interviewee’s Responsibilities 469 THE SELECTION INTERVIEW 470 Employment Strategies 470 Tips for the Interviewee 471 Notes 481 Glossary 501 Credits 511 Index 515 xii THE INFORMATION GATHERING INTERVIEW Prepare for the Interview 476 Choose the Right Interviewee 476 Informational Interviewing Tips 476 OTHER INTERVIEW TYPES 477 The Persuasive Interview 477 The Counseling Interview 479 The Survey Interview 479 SUMMARY 480 KEY TERMS 480 475 i-xvii_FM_Adler 2/28/05 AM Page xiii PREFACE We asked George Rodman’s daughter Jenny (a college senior) and Ron Adler’s son Daniel (a freshman) what distinguishes good textbooks from bad ones.A good text, they told us, ought to spell out how theory and research relate to everyday life.

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